Friday, July 10, 2015

Engage NY: Notes on Scaffolding Instruction for English Language Learners

Link to document

Sample lessons (exemplars) found in this document.  

Proof of Laws of Exponents is an 8th grade lesson, page 45 (module 3 lesson 6)
The Power of Exponential Growth is an Algebra I lesson page 63 (module 3 lesson 5)


Teach Academic Vocabulary

-use engaging informational texts
-choose a small subset of vocab for in-depth study
-practice by writing, speaking, and listening
-student friendly definitions
-teacher should introduce by pronouncing clearly and students can respond chorally
-note when the word has another meaning in a different context, or is a homophone (some and sum)
-identify part of speech (a perfect square, to square a number, a square tile)
-meaningful way for students to record the word, such as a graphic organizer or glossary
-Multiple opportunities to review the words, such as flashcards or foldables
-Structured opportunities to use the words across the 4 modalities (reading, writing, speaking and listening)
-word banks or word walls organized by concept.  Teacher refers to wall either before or during use of the words.

Strategies with Details:

Integrate Oral and Written Language Instruction into Content Area Teaching

-strategically use instructional tools to anchor the instruction (videos, visuals, graphic organizers)
-explicitly teach the concept specific vocab (see above) during instruction
-daily opportunities for students to talk about content in pairs and small groups
-provide writing opportunities to extend learning and understanding
-use structured approaches to Socratic discussion

Concrete and Visual Models includes manipulatives, illustrations or other (think Desmos/Geogebra) ways for students to have a more hands-on experience of the content.

Graphic Organizers and Foldables
-graphic organizers include concept maps
-can be provided partially completed, or students can construct from scratch
-these support ELLs because they help display complex text succinctly and graphically

Multimedia can enhance instructions, especially if subtitles are available in students' first language.

Structured Opportunities to Speak With a Partner or Small Group

-pair with more proficient English speakers
-skills to use include elaborate and justify, support ideas with examples, paraphrase, and synthesize conversation points.
-sentence frames

Provide Regular, Structured Opportunities to Write
-Writing assignments should be anchored in content
-Can include language based support such as graphic organizers and sentence frames and starters

Build Background knowledge
-will be helpful before starting a performance task (like SBAC in class activity before Math performance task). Make sure all students are on the same page with respect to the situation before starting the task.
-Do no rely on the affirmative to gauge student understanding of context

Clarify Content Delivered in a Second Language
-reword text by using present tense, shorter sentences, graphics, color, etc.

Teacher Modeling and Explanation
-model and explain the thought process that will be included in the lesson activity.  Clearly explain each task and model an expected student response.

-Include a clear focus at the beginning of each lesson by stating standards, objectives, and agenda for the day in student friendly language

Capitalize on Student's Home Language Skills and Knowledge
-glossaries and side-by-side texts that include home language translations (Note: Google Docs has an easy translate feature that created a new copy of the doc in the chosen language.  Can easy put these side by side in separate windows)
-pair ELL student with bilingual partner so discussions can occur in home language and in English

From the Math 8 Exponents lesson
Note:  This lesson is about proving the exponent laws.  Some of the highlights include
-Explicitly introduce new vocabulary.  Give students a chance to review relevant vocab from previous lessons.  Can use a foldable organizer.
-Keep important information statements visible throughout the lesson for reference.  From past experience, this is an extremely valuable strategy and helps student retrieval.  Think anchor charts.  
-The HW for the night before can include a reading to help students prepare for the lesson and a Socrative discussion.  They will take write down notes, quotes, questions, and a summary.  Can write these in the margins of the text.
-Give students a partially completed statements and reasons table for first proof
-Keep the initial example done with concrete numbers visible so students can relate the symbolic argument to the the work just completed (I didn't actually see an example in there done with concrete numbers.  Might be in the original lesson)

-From pages 58-59

The Power of Exponential Growth is an Algebra I lesson, page 63 (module 3 lesson 5)
-Cueing: Introduce objectives, student outcomes, and key vocabulary for the lesson.  Write these on the board so they can be referenced later.  During the initial conversation, give students time to make meaning and have partner talk.
-Use a matchbook style foldable to record vocabulary information
-rewrite task prompt for introduction example so it is present tense, shorter sentences, and the first few rows of the table of values pre-filled with question marks for the entries that students should fill out on their own.

After example 1, AIR suggest the following structured opportunity to speak with a partner or small group

Example 2
-use multimedia to enhance comprehension (video How Paper Folding Can Get You To the Moon.  Watch it, very interesting)
- Reworking the wording of the problem (without sacrificing rigor or content) is essential.
-Provide a blank table of values for the exit ticket problem (exponential growth problem)

-AIR gives us the HW assignment for this lesson rewritten with the same rigor but scaffolded language load. See page 80.  Embed relevant images and have students create tables of values to help them solve problems.  For original HW, see page 6.

AIR suggests teachers work in groups to go over the lessons and consider how to apply the strategies to any given lesson within the Engage NY curriculum.  My district is piloting the Engage NY curriculum for Algebra 1.  

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